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The last thing a Navy pilot launching from an aircraft carrier wants is that sinking feeling as the jet descends too far below the flight deck at the end of the catapult stroke. The US Navy has been safely launching aircraft off catapults for many years. What must happen behind the scenes to avoid that sinking feeling and allow the pilot to attain sufficient airspeed to fly away and proceed on the mission? Here are a few key overarching issues that must be addressed during a minimum end airspeed flight test program.

Minimum end airspeed is the key term. Technically the absolute minimum catapult end airspeed is the speed off the carrier below which the airplane cannot maintain itself in the air. Determining this is not as simple as searching for a figure in a pilot’s operating handbook like you could for stall speed or other flight data. That’s where the expertise of a team of test pilots and flight test engineers are needed to make it all happen.

F14 catupult launch

The minimum catapult end airspeed is the speed off the carrier below which the airplane cannot maintain itself in the air.

The journey starts in Maryland at NAS Patuxent River. That’s where the flight test professionals of the Carrier Suitability Branch (CVS) of the Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) Air Test and Evaluation Squadron Two Three (VX-23) come to into play. This organization maintains a land-based TC-7 catapult and a Mk-7 arresting gear to conduct a wide range of ground-based aircraft testing prior to further testing on the carrier.

My career in flight test started with the CVS professionals and I was proud to be part of the team of pilots and engineers that conducted the initial carrier qualifications test on the USS Nimitz (CVN-68) in May of 1975. It is hard to believe that so many years have passed as the Nimitz is now approaching the end of its service to the US Navy. The CVS aircraft fleet was extensive by today’s standards back then. We conducted flight testing on the F-14, F-4, F-8, A-4, A-6, A-7, RA-5, S-3, C-2 – all going through the catapult launch and recovery certification process before fleet began ops.

aircraft carrier

The Nimitz is now approaching the end of its service to the US Navy.

The flight test pilots and engineers must develop a thorough understanding of many aircraft factors including aerodynamic stall speed, thrust available, angle of attack (AOA), loading, center of gravity (CG) location, and rotational inertia. Then the shipboard factors must include catapult performance, bow, or waist catapult, and Wind Over Deck (WOD) measurement systems.

Consider the difference between the minimum end airspeed and the catapult launching envelope. The goal is to establish the lowest practical airspeed because it decreases the WOD requirement for a catapult launch, decreases the loads imposed on the aircraft, and decreases the energy that the catapult must deliver to the airplane. A catupult shot typically generates up to 4 Gs and the airspeed will go from zero to 160mph in just two seconds.

The absolute minimum catapult end airspeed calculations are pretty accurate, but must be verified through a flight test program. In order to have the data available to make informed plans, the aircraft must be heavily instrumented. Parameters can include basics like airspeed, altitude, and AOA, but also pitch and roll attitude, pitch rate, rate of climb, and engine details.

aircraft carrier

The absolute minimum catapult end airspeed calculations are pretty accurate, but must be verified through a flight test program.

Aerodynamic tests are first performed from the Pax River base to establish limit conditions and pilot techniques. Many relevant factors must be thoroughly understood including aircraft lift configuration, external loading, CG, and engine power. Two factors are of primary concern, the aerodynamic stall speed and the slow speed where the thrust available equals the thrust required.

Once this baseline data is established, the next step with testing at the Pax River land-based TC-7 Catapult. Even though the pitching moments, trim, and ground effect influences will be different from shipboard launches, the data developed is still critically important as part of the overall flight test program.

The aircraft/catapult launch envelope must consider several factors. On the catapult side is the maximum capacity available. On the aircraft side, considerations include the maximum design gross weight and longitudinal acceleration limit in both the clean and dirty configurations. The structural aircraft tow force limit is also a major consideration. For these reasons the determination of a minimum end airspeed is critical to flight operations on the boat.

The flight testing on the boat is the next critical step in the program. The flight deck is about sixty feet above the ocean so a margin of 4 kts above the absolute minimum end airspeed is the target for the shipboard tests. Based upon the land-based testing at Pax River, a starting point is established and gradually lowered in increments of 3 kts to reach the minimum end airspeed. Then tests are conducted at a range of aircraft weights and external loading. The aircraft external loading configuration can affect the minimum airspeed because of drag, rotational inertia, and wing/tail airflow interference. The flight testing then must be repeated for each aircraft that will operate from the carrier.

Once the flight test program is completed, the data is disseminated to the fleet in the form of Aircraft Launching Bulletins (ACLB) and Naval Air Training and Operating Procedures Standardization (NATOPS) Flight Manuals. Using the minimum airspeed as a foundation, the ACLB is generated with aircraft launched at 10-15 kts above the minimum end airspeed. This ensures that each catapult launch will be safe from an airspeed standpoint, providing confidence to the pilots that each launch will be a successful start to another mission complete objective.

The Future

Starting with the USS Gerald R. Ford (CVN-78), a new era began with the introduction of new catapults and arresting gear. The General Atomics Electromagnetic Aircraft Launch System (EMALS) and Advanced Arresting Gear (AAG) upgrades will offer many benefits. The advantages of the EMALS include less airframe stress, lower system weight, reduced maintenance, less energy needs and quicker recharges which allow for increased sortie rates. In addition, the number of sailors required to operate from a catapult is reduced from about a dozen to two.

Pat O'Brien
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17 replies
  1. Gary A Michel
    Gary A Michel says:

    Great article. Years ago I got a DV trip out of NAS North Island to and from USS Stennis via C-2 Greyhound. Great experience (of a lifetime). My derriere and I thank you for your work.

    Reply
  2. Stu Sibitzky
    Stu Sibitzky says:

    Years ago (1985) I went to work at a flight school in San Diego. All the normal stuff for small Pipers and Cessnas but the really cool part was the Chief Pilot. I can’t remember his name but he was a recently retired O-6 from the Test Group at Pax River. He flew those aircraft with such finesse that I was supremely impressed and he wanted me to aspire to those standards. He was a real joy to fly with and those were such fun flights.

    Reply
  3. Pat O'Brien
    Pat O'Brien says:

    Thanks Gary. C-2 is an interesting hop, but my favorite was right seat on KA-6D tanking the flight test airplanes. It was as up close and personal as a civilian flight test guy could get at the boat.

    Reply
    • Pat O'Brien
      Pat O'Brien says:

      Thanks Jeff. As a NAVAIR civilian flight test engineer one of my flight highlights was your seat on a KA-6D tanking the flight test planes to get the right weights for the test points.

      Reply
  4. Pavol
    Pavol says:

    I wonder how they adjusted for lack of headwind created by carrier going full steam against the wind in the middle of the ocean when they tested on the ground. I reckon it could be easily 50kt thus reducing the strain on the catapult in a real life scenario. Did they extend the test ground run for that? Same for simulated landings.
    Thanks for the deep insights!

    Reply
    • Pat O'Brien
      Pat O'Brien says:

      Pavol the launch bulletins were graphs of Wind of Deck versus Aircraft Weight. the intersection of those two data points provided the steam pressure to set on the catapult to ensure sufficient airspeed. If the wind was nil, the carrier might have to speed up, but the reverse would be true with high winds.

      Reply
  5. mark daniels
    mark daniels says:

    Great Article, my question is what is the advantage of a “Ski Ramp” on some of the carriers of other nations. Seems to me that what ever altitude thaat you gain would be at a cost of airspeed. You can’t create extra energy without a cost; or am I missing something?

    Reply
    • Pat O'Brien
      Pat O'Brien says:

      Thanks Mark-The ski ramp works for many planes and the F-14 was operated off the ski ramp. The limiting factor is the weight the aircraft can carry. The catapult has the energy to get a fully loaded jet to takeoff speed in about 2 seconds. I understand that the Brits are reconsidering their carriers and are looking at adding catapults.

      Reply

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