10 min read

“The number of hours in your logbook does not determine whether you’re a good pilot.” I’ve heard a variation of that phrase for decades, but in spite of the well-meaning advice, total time is still the measuring stick for pilots. A pilot with thousands of hours is assumed to be safe, and both his insurance premium and his reputation around the airport will probably reflect that assumption.

But read through NTSB accident reports and you’ll quickly notice another measure of pilot proficiency is more important: time in type. Every year, pilots with thousands of hours find ways to bend airplanes, sometimes with fatal results. Many of these accidents involve experienced and proficient pilots who were transitioning to new airplane types, where the safety margins (at least initially) are much thinner than usual.

Consider the following three scenarios.

1 – A new Conquest owner loses control.

Loss of control remains a hot phrase in aviation safety circles, with spirited discussions about spin training, angle of attack indicators, and flight instructor experience. But as this first accident shows, that simple phrase hides a lot of important details. There is no single cause of a stall/spin accident.

In this case, the pilot was very experienced, with nearly 5,000 hours of total time and a commercial pilot certificate. However, only 101 of those hours were in multi-engine airplanes and less than 10 hours were in the make and model (in this case a Cessna Conquest turboprop).


The Conquest is a great airplane, but it’s a lot of work for a single pilot.

The pilot intended to land at Denton, Texas, where conditions were IFR: 900 overcast and 2 miles visibility in light rain and mist, with winds from 350 degrees at 17 knots, gusting to 25. It was after 9 pm local, so the pilot was facing a night instrument approach. Overall, there was nothing dangerous for an experienced pilot, but there certainly wasn’t much room for error either.

Fort Worth Approach was vectoring the Conquest for the GPS 36 approach to DTO. The NTSB report describes how the pilot slowly fell behind the airplane. He missed a turn, then missed a level-off, before losing control:

“…the pilot made an engine power reduction about 2.5 minutes before the accident as he maneuvered toward the final approach fix. Following the engine power reduction, the airplane’s airspeed decreased from 162 to 75 knots calibrated airspeed, and the angle of attack increased from 2.7° to 14°. About 4 miles from the final approach fix, the airplane descended below the specified minimum altitude for that segment of the instrument approach.”

ATC tried to warn the pilot:

“At 2108:47, the tower controller told the pilot to ‘… check your altitude, you are still a couple of miles from the marker [NULUX], and uh believe your altitude should be about 2,100 there.’ At 2108:54, the pilot replied, ‘Okay, going back to (unintelligible).’”

But the airplane continued its descent, and a last minute pull-up resulted in a stall/spin. The airplane was destroyed and the pilot was killed.

2 – Homebuilt tragedy.

Experimental airplanes are the lifeblood of recreational aviation, offering innovative designs and excellent value for the owner who’s willing to put in some work. However, they bring their own challenges, especially with transition training. A 2017 accident is a repeat of a scenario seen too often in experimental flying: a fatal first flight.

As the NTSB report sums up the short and tragic flight:

“The private pilot built the airplane over a 24-year period; the accident occurred on the airplane’s first flight after the pilot completed building it. The pilot aborted the first takeoff attempt for unknown reasons. During the second takeoff, the airplane was struggling to gain altitude, pitching up and down, and banking. Several witnesses reported hearing ‘good’ engine sounds. Just before the impact, the airplane was in a steep nose-down, left descending spiral before it descended below the trees, followed by a plume of black smoke.”

Was it an engine failure due to improper installation? Maybe a flight control problem? Or just pilot error? It’s impossible to know, but the pilot’s recent experience certainly did not help:

“The pilot did not have any flight experience in the accident make and model airplane. Further, he had only flown for 4.8 hours in the 12 months before the accident flight. Although it is likely that the pilot’s lack of recent flight experience and time in the airplane’s make and model played a role in the accident, investigators were unable to determine the cause of the accident due to thermal damage to the airplane’s flight controls.”

One final detail suggests the pilot may have been fixated a bit too much on making that first flight:

“[A] flight instructor, who had flown with the pilot in August (about 2 months before the accident), stated that they had discussed whether to have an experienced pilot conduct the first flight in the pilot’s airplane after it was built. The flight instructor stated that the pilot replied that he had built the airplane, so he was going to conduct the first flight… On June 7, 2017, the pilot ground looped the airplane, which resulted in landing gear damage, while performing high-speed taxi tests.”

3 – Transitioning down, instead of up.

Most pilots worry about the move up to faster and heavier airplanes, but sometimes the transition into a slower or simpler airplane can be equally risky. That was the case in a 2012 crash of a Piper Navajo:

“The pilot began flying the twin piston-engine airplane model for the cargo airline about 11 months before the accident. Although he had since upgraded to one of the airline’s twin- turboprop airplane models, due to the airline’s logistical needs, the pilot was transferred back to the piston-engine model about 1 week before the accident.”


The terrain around Payson is remote and unforgiving.

The destination that night was Payson, Arizona, a fairly remote airport some 60 miles northeast of Phoenix. Weather and equipment problems conspired to make the flight even more challenging:

“Information available at the time indicated that the cloud cover almost certainly precluded access to the airport without an instrument approach; however, the airplane was not equipped to conduct the only available instrument approach procedure for that airport. Additionally, the pilot did not have in-flight access to any GPS or terrain mapping/database information to readily assist him in either locating the airport or remaining safely clear of the local terrain.”

The NTSB report goes into exhaustive detail on the airplane systems, the weather conditions, and the charter operator’s procedures. There was a lot going on, including mountain wave and possibly in-flight icing. However, the Navajo is a robust airplane and another pilot in the area did not report significant weather issues beyond moderate turbulence.

One important detail suggests a potential trap for a transitioning pilot:

“Because of the pilot’s recent transition from the Beechcraft BE-99, in which the pitot heat was always operating during flight, he may have forgotten that the accident airplane’s pitot heat procedures were different and that the pitot heat had to be manually activated when the airplane encountered the icing conditions.”

Flying at night, in IMC, in updraft and downdrafts – and potentially with an iced-up airspeed indicator – is a recipe for disaster, no matter how experienced the pilot is. The result was fatal: “the airplane impacted terrain in a steep nose-down attitude in a near-vertical trajectory.”

Industry experience

The experience of two aircraft manufacturers backs up this anecdotal evidence. Both the Mitsubishi MU-2 turboprop and the Robinson R22 helicopter were breakthrough designs for their time, but both also met with poor initial safety records. After extensively evaluating the aircraft designs, special FAA committees found no smoking gun with either the MU-2 or the R22. What they did find was pilots with very low time in type getting into situations they were not equipped to handle. Notably, some of the accident pilots had significant amounts of total time logged, but from dramatically different aircraft types – and with little formal transition training. This may have created a deadly combination of inexperience and complacency.

The result in both cases was a Special FAR that mandates type-specific training before anyone (no matter how much total time they have) can fly as pilot-in-command. The results have been impressive, with fatal accidents decreasing by an order of magnitude since the SFAR requirements went into effect.

My own experience transitioning into a Cirrus SR22 recently has reminded me how valuable good transition training is too. I grew up in aviation flying Cessna 172s, 182s, and 210s, before checking out in a Pilatus PC-12. The Cirrus is a lot simpler than both the 210 and the PC-12, but that’s not what matters. It’s different. My first flight in the Cirrus felt like my first lesson in a 172 – I was pretty much along for the ride.

My 3500 hours of experience did have a benefit. I mastered control of the Cirrus much faster than a brand new student, since I knew how to talk on the radio and how to work the avionics. But it’s still a different machine, with unique system designs, sportier handling, and complicated checklists to master. While I may have been legal and insured to blast off into moderate rain on that first flight, I certainly wouldn’t have been safe to do so.

Lessons learned

So what should you do if you’re moving into a new aircraft type? Two things seem obvious but important: get good transition training and be conservative about what flights you make until you gain experience in the type of airplane.

The pilot of the experimental airplane was understandably excited to see his 24-year project take flight, and he clearly wanted to be the one at the controls. But that eager attitude may have been fatal. The building phase was complete, but the flying phase deserved just as much attention. Notably, EAA offers some excellent resources for pilots preparing to make that momentous first flight. Whether it’s through their Flight Advisors program or just a local expert, an outside opinion is a good idea.

Cirrus CFI

Cirrus has been a leader in offering transition training to all new owners.

Even if you’re flying a certified airplane with thousands of hours on the airframe, it makes sense to complete some type of formal transition training (a lap around the pattern doesn’t count). Simulator companies like FlightSafety and SimCom offer outstanding training for many high performance airplanes, but there are other options, including the Cirrus Embark program, which offers training with experienced Cirrus instructors.

And yet transition training is not enough. The Conquest pilot was clearly an experienced pilot, and had completed two separate training events, but a single pilot IFR flight at night (in an airplane he had only 10 hours in) was simply too much, too soon. Better to start with very simple and low-risk flights and add additional challenges slowly.

For example, I did not fly with passengers for the first half-dozen flights in the Cirrus, and I did not fly any IFR flights for the first dozen. Even now I will not fly the airplane in low IFR conditions or at night, despite the fact that I’m instrument proficient in other airplanes and have about 30 hours in the airplane. I’m getting there, but I want to be confident.

The best advice is to approach each airplane, no matter how simple, like a type rating. The airlines and business aviation have proven that this model is safer. Total time is a collection of experiences that may or may not apply to the flying you’re doing today; time in type matters much more.

The insurance market is beginning to exert an influence here, too. After a decade of low premiums and too many underwriters, conditions are tightening significantly, especially for high performance and turbine airplanes. Most underwriters have required formal transition training for years, but now they are tightening up the requirements for transition time after that week in the simulator. If you’re stepping up to a Baron or a TBM, expect a minimum of 25, 50 or even 100 hours in type before you can fly solo. A minor inconvenience, perhaps, but one that’s clearly worth it.

John Zimmerman
16 replies
  1. David Ward Sandidge
    David Ward Sandidge says:

    Well said, John. Aretha Franklin sang about it, and both Charles Lindbergh and Chuck Yeager preached it: R E S P E C T… Respect that which can kill you quickly. The Bible uses another word for the same veneration: “Fear.”

  2. Jeff Edwards
    Jeff Edwards says:

    Great article, John. The Lancair Owners and Builders Organization came to the same conclusion and advocated for AC 90-116 Additional Pilot Program which allows a second experienced pilot on experimental amateur built aircraft Phase 1 test flights. We have had no fatal accidents in Phase 1 since inception. We also participated in drafting AC 91-109 Transition to Unfamiliar Aircraft. No matter the pilot’s experience in other aircraft a thorough transition program is essential for safe flying.

  3. Ken James
    Ken James says:

    Having thousands of hours in small aircraft in a VFR or flight instruction environment does not prepare a pilot for real world flying in a fast, turbine airplane. It is a very daunting transition.

  4. Gil graham
    Gil graham says:

    VERY good article! I have similar flight experience as the author, regularly fly a Conquest, and also had the same difficulty transitioning to a Cirrus. I never flew it enough to be comfortable. An observation about the Conquest crash – The Garrett engines fly at 96-100% rpm regardless of power, so the noise never changes. That takes some time getting accustomed to and could have been a factor.

  5. T Ibahc Jr
    T Ibahc Jr says:

    I dont know why pilots just dont turn on the pitot heat as a part of their after start checklist…unless the AFM specifically prohibits it, it sure would prevent a lot of mishaps that occur when it is forgotten or turned on too late to help

    • T Ibach Jr
      T Ibach Jr says:

      and the Beech 99 has on-off switches for the pitot heat on the Capts side, so most likely this fellow was in the right seat of the 99 and unfamiliar

  6. Bryon Wetzler
    Bryon Wetzler says:

    Unless the Conquest has a “black box,” it is impossible to know the calibrated airspeed or angle of attack of the aircraft. Unquestionably, the pilot got too slow and stall/spun, but inaccurate reporting to sensationalize or prove a specific point is misleading. Also, the pictured aircraft is still being flown by experienced professional pilots.

  7. Bruce Webbon
    Bruce Webbon says:

    Even a “familiar” aircraft type can surprise you.

    I have more than 2,000 hours in my own C182 so I’m very familiar with it. I needed a BFR a while back and circumstances dictated that I take it in a rental 182. I was very complacent thinking I wouldn’t learn anything new since I know all about 182s so no sweat.

    I was wrong! The feel of the airplane was very different. My first touch and go was an embarrassment bordering on unsafe. At that point I wouldn’t have signed me off if I was the instructor. To my credit, once I had scared myself and the instructor and started focussing and paying attention I adapted quickly and the rest of the flight went fine.

    Overall it was a very useful experience and I learned a very important lesson, in spite of my expectations.

  8. Ronald Pogatchnik
    Ronald Pogatchnik says:

    This is an increasing trend due to the pilot shortage. Many corporate flight departments are staffing with very low time pilots and are requiring them to fly 2 to 3 different type aircraft. This is not good. Many of these pilots are surviving because of the excellent equipment installed to fly the plane. Once that “magic” equipment fails these guys limited flying skills are very apparent. Flying too many types of aircraft WILL cause confusion when dealing with different emergency responses. All in the name of keeping the labor costs down..


    Re: time in type. All the comments were “spot on”! As the Director of Aviation of a Fortune 200 Company, I did not allow any dual qualified pilots. The risk did not outweigh the economic rewards!

  10. Matt Thurber
    Matt Thurber says:

    The R22 and MU-2 SFAR and type rating requirements for large airplanes and jets proves that formal training in type works. Why is it then that FAA regulations allow a pilot to fly a sophisticated airplane like a TBM, PC-12, King Air, or even a Cirrus, without additional training? Of course, no insurance underwriter would cover such a risk, but them’s the rules.

    • Stuart Spindel
      Stuart Spindel says:

      As you say, the insurance company sets their own rules, FARs notwithstanding. After all, it’s their money.

      FARs require flight reviews every two years and no instrument proficiency checks with currency maintained. However my insurance company requires an annual flight review and instrument proficiency check in type to get the best rates.

  11. garrett
    garrett says:

    I fly a conquest 441 single pilot.. personal aircraft. Im usually in the Austin area but on occasions other airports in Texas Back and forth from California. We don’t know what equipment the pilot had on board. With that said the approach and landing should not have been a problem. Although, Prior to my upgrades to my dual GSN 600s and Dual 750s my situational awareness was good but nothing like it is now. I think the pilot was busy correcting his approach and got tunnel vision . The 441 is incredibly powerful with no passengers Adding power would stop the diminishing the airspeed and with such a light load I cannot imagine the aircraft not starting to climb with any reasonable angle of attack. Unlike the PT6 the Garrett -10s have very rapid power
    response. Fact is fate is the hunter.

  12. Enderson Rafael
    Enderson Rafael says:

    Excellent, John! I could not agree more. Many people talk about total hours, when in fact, hours on type (and even if not “type” itself, but category of operation), makes a more significant difference. Is very hard to the industry to measure proficiency, and the 3000 total hours russian captain that did a job as amazing as the 20 thousand experienced Sully kind of goes toward that conclusion (for portuguese readers, I got this article out that week And I felt that for ever new type I flew, and close together with the experience itself on that type, comes recency. Very good article!


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